Reading list for LNG as fuel (dual fueled vessels)

Could anybody recommend a reading list for the procedures related to the storage and handling of LNG as fuel ?



This is a very relevant question nowadays!

A recommended reading list is the following:

1. The International Code of Safety for Ships using Gases or other Low-flashpoint Fuels, also known as the IGF code (MSC.391(95)).
The principal IMO document that outlines the mandatory safety criteria for the arrangement and installation of machinery, equipment and systems for vessels operating with gas or low-flashpoint liquids, other than those covered by the IGC code.
IGF CODE MSC.391(95).pdf (1.9 MB)

2. The SGMF publications and guidelines.
The Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel (SGMF) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) established to promote safety and industry best practice in the use of gas as a marine fuel on non-LNG carrier vessels. They have a very comprehensive library of well written guidelines which is available on subscription basis.

3. United States Coast Guard (USCG) Policy Letters on LNG as fuel.

  • USCG CG - MMC Policy Letter No 01-21 (2021). “Guidelines for obtaining STCW endorsements for basic and advanced IGF code operations”.
  • Policy Letter CG-521 01-12, (2012): Equivalency Determination – Design Criteria for Natural Gas Systems.
  • Policy Letter CG-521 01-12, Ch-1 (2017): Equivalency Determination – Design Criteria for Natural Gas Systems (Change-1).
  • Policy Letter CG-OES 02-15: Guidance Related to Vessels and Waterfront Facilities Conducting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Marine Fuel Transfer (Bunkering) Operations.
  • Policy Letter No. 01-17 - Guidance for Evaluating Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPS) during Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Fuel Transfer Operations.
  • LGC NCOE Field Notice 01-2017 – 14-Aug-17 - Recommended Process for Analysing Risk Of Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPS) During Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Bunkering.
    All letters are available for free downloading at:

4. European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) guidance on LNG bunkering.
Guidance on LNG Bunkering to Port Authorities and Administrations (click on the link to reach the EMSA website where the relevant guidance can be downloaded for free).

5. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines and standards on LNG as fuel

  • ISO/TS 18683:2015, Guidelines for Systems and Installations for Supply of LNG as Fuel to Ships.
  • ISO 31010, Risk Management – Risk Assessment Techniques.
  • ISO 23306:2020 - Specification of liquefied natural gas as a fuel for marine
  • ISO 20519: 2017, Ships and marine technology – Specification for bunkering of liquefied natural gas fueled vessels
  • ISO 28460:2010, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas — Ship-to-shore interface and port operations
  • ISO 21593:2019, Ships and marine technology – Technical requirements for dry-disconnect/connect couplings for bunkering liquefied
    natural gas.
    The ISO standards can be purchased at:

6. International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) recommendations on LNG as fuel.

  • IACS unified interpretations of the IGF Code.
  • LNG bunkering guidelines (IACS Recommendation No.142).
  • Risk assessment as required by the IGF code (Recommendation No.146)
  • Survey of liquified gas fuel containment systems (Recommendation No. 148)
    All IACS recommendations are available for free downloading at