Powering penalty due to propeller fouling

What is the expected powering penalty owed to a fouled propeller, on large tankers with full forms such as VLCCs?


According to research carried out by the British Ship Research Association (BSRA) a rough propeller can lead to a power penalty of up to 6%. Although the surface area of the propeller is small in comparison with that of the entire hull, the effect of a rough propeller in a ship’s fuel consumption is proportionately higher.